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PROF. NGUGI ELIZABETH N.
Publications (74 Records)
Response of a sexually transmitted infection epidemic to a treatment and prevention programme in Nairobi, Kenya. Moses S, Ngugi EN, Costigan A, Kariuki C, Maclean I, Brunham RC, Plummer FA. Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Apr;78 Suppl 1:i114-20 - 2002
Although it seems possible in a developing country context such as Kenya, given appropriate inputs and a sound approach, to shift a sexually transmitted disease (STI) epidemic from phase II to III, it is not entirely clear how to go beyond this stage, to low levels of endemicity or even elimination. Perhaps the most important challenge now is to expand STI treatment and community STI/HIV prevention programmes to a much larger scale. Although successful programmes have been implemented in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa on a small scale, a significant impact in reducing the STI/HIV burden will not occur until programme reach is expanded to district, provincial, and national levels.
Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Apr;78 Suppl 1:i114-20
Fonck K, Kaul R, Kimani J, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of monthly azithromycin prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 in Kenyan sex workers: study design and baseline findings.Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Dec;11(12):804-11. - 2002
Our objectives were to describe the baseline findings of a trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV-1 in a cohort of Nairobi female sex workers (FSWs). A questionnaire was administered and a medical examination was performed. HIV-negative women were randomly assigned to either one gram azithromycin or placebo monthly. Mean age of the 318 women was 32 years, mean duration of sex work 7 years and mean number of clients was 4 per day. High-risk behaviour was frequent: 14% practised anal intercourse, 23% sex during menses, and 3% used intravenous drugs. While 20% reported condom use with all clients, 37% never use condoms. However, STI prevalence was relatively low: HIV-1 27%, bacterial vaginosis 46%, Trichomonas vaginalis 13%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 8%, Chlamydia trachomatis 7%, syphilis 6% and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3%. It appears feasible to access a population of high-risk FSWs in Nairobi with prevention programmes, including a proposed trial of HIV prevention through STI chemoprophylaxis.
Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Dec;11(12):804-11.
Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Temmerman M, Moses S: Reduced HIV risk-taking and low HIV incidence after enrollment and risk-reduction counseling in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 May 1;30(1):69-72. - 2002
There is an urgent need in sub-Saharan Africa to develop more effective methods of HIV prevention, including improved strategies of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention or an HIV vaccine. The efficacy of these strategies may be tested through clinical trials within cohorts at high risk for STI and HIV, such as female commercial sex workers. For ethical reasons, standard HIV prevention services, including access to free condoms, risk-reduction counseling, and STI therapy, will generally be offered to all study subjects. Because study subjects would often not otherwise have access to these prevention services, it is possible that enrollment in such clinical trials will itself reduce incidence rates of STI and HIV below expected levels, reducing the power to test the efficacy of the randomized intervention. We show that the provision of standard HIV prevention services as part of a randomized STI/HIV prevention trial is temporally associated with a dramatic reduction in sexual risk-taking, and that this reduction is directly associated with reduced STI incidence. This finding should be considered in the design of clinical trials with an endpoint of HIV incidence, in particular HIV preventive vaccine trials.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 May 1;30(1):69-72.
Public health. Reducing HIV transmission in developing countries. Jha P, Nagelkerke JD, Ngugi EN, Prasada Rao JV, Willbond B, Moses S, Plummer FA. Science. 2001 Apr 13;292(5515):224-5. - 2001
Science. 2001 Apr 13;292(5515):224-5
Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Aug;77(4):271-5 - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among a group of female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: This study was part of a randomised, placebo controlled trial of monthly prophylaxis with 1 g of azithromycin to prevent STIs and HIV infection in a cohort of Nairobi FSWs. Consenting women were administered a questionnaire and screened for STIs. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 543 FSWs screened was 30%. HIV infection was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, and the presence of a genital ulcer. Regular douching was reported by 72% of the women, of whom the majority inserted fluids in the vagina, generally after each sexual intercourse. Water with soap was the fluid most often used (81%), followed by salty water (18%), water alone (9%), and a commercial antiseptic (5%). Douching in general and douching with soap and water were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04 respectively). There was a significant trend for increased frequency of douching and higher prevalence of BV. There was no direct relation observed between douching and risk for HIV infection or other STIs. CONCLUSION: The widespread habit of douching among African female sex workers was confirmed. The association between vaginal douching and BV is of concern, given the increased risk of HIV infection with BV, which has now been shown in several studies. It is unclear why we could not demonstrate a direct association between douching and HIV infection. Further research is required to better understand the complex relation between douching, risk for bacterial vaginosis, and risk for HIV and other STIs.
Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Aug;77(4):271-5
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