Dr.osanjo George Oyamo


Dr.osanjo George Oyamo

Academic Qualifications:

B.Pharm., Msc. (UoN), Ph.D.(Nantes, France)

Areas of Specialization:

Molecular Pharmacology

Extra Responsibilities:

Co-ordinator, School of Pharmacy Fourth Term Programme

Curriculum Vitae:

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Publications (12 Records)

  • MARION N. ONG’AYO1, GEORGE O. OSANJO2, MARGARET OLUKA3. ADHERENCE TO ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT AMONG PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL - 2011

    Background Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is the most common cause of death from a single infectious disease particularly in children. Adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication throughout the six month treatment period is extremely important if the treatment for TB is to be successful. Objective To determine the rate of patient adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment and to determine the factors which affect adherence to treatment in TB paediatric patients. Methodology This was a hospital based cross sectional study which was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) TB clinic. 57 caregivers of children aged 0 to 15 years who met the inclusion criteria were sampled. The caregivers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. After the interview the patients were requested to provide a urine sample which was tested for the presence of INH or its metabolites to verify adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication. Results The rate of adherence to anti-TB medications as determined by urine testing was 91.8 %. Marital status was found to be an economic and structural factor that is significantly associated with adherence to medication. Among the patient/caregiver factors, administration of medicine at 24 hour intervals was significantly associated with adherence to medication. Bivariate analysis showed that patients whose caregivers were married or administered medication at 24 hour intervals were more likely to adhere to medication. The ORs (95% CIs) were 4.57 (1.04 - 20.11) and 7.70 (1.85 - 33.33) respectively. In multivariate analysis, administration of medication at 24 hour intervals was significantly associated with adherence to medication (OR: 6.47; 95% CI 1.44 - 29.10). There was no significant association between regimen complexity factors, relationship between health care provider and patient/caregiver, pattern of healthcare delivery and adherence to medication. Conclusion The adherence rate to anti-TB medication in this population was relatively high. The high rate of adherence was probably due structures that have been put in place to ensure that TB patients have access to TB treatment services even at the community level.

       1st International Scientific Conference

  • Mwanda W, Opinya G, Ngugi E, Otieno F ,Osanjo G and Oyugi J. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY PROPOSALS AT THE KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL AND COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE - 2011

    Background; MEPI Research Track Aim Three conducted a needs assessment survey at the Ethics and research office. The purpose was to document the baseline data and information regarding studies being undertaken within the college of Health Sciences and the Kenyatta National Hospital. Objectives: To document the approved research proposals with a view to knowing the overall numbers, departments, types of research (basic science implementation, applied science), the description of persons to undertake the research Design: Purposeful perusal of documents on study research proposals at the Kenyatta National Hospital/ University of Nairobi Ethics Research Committee office. Method: Inclusion criteria was proof of approval by KNH/UON ERC Every proposal approved in the study period December 2008 to December 2010, was scrutinized for study requirements. These were recorded in a proforma questionnaire. These were then pooled and analyzed for: department details of the persons whose names appeared on the proposal and the type of study specifically noting those involving implementation medical science research. Results: Overall there were 377 approved proposals. The majority of the persons were from College of Health science and the Kenyatta National Hospital the ranking by numbers were: school of medicine, school of dental sciences, school of nursing, UNITID, School of Public Health and School of Pharmacy. Further more the first five departments were surgery 13.5% obstetrics and Gynaecology 12.5% ophthalmology 10.6%, psychiatry 8%, Human pathology and microbiology 6.6% each and medicine 6.4%. While in order of decreasing numbers types of research were; basic science, applied and implementation research. Most of the proposals were for master’s students 78% followed by Kenyatta National Hospital staff 11% and College of Health Science 6% staff while the grant projects research proposals constituted a small proportion 5%. Conclusion: The study proposals are mainly for the masters degree students. and departments with large number of students. There is paucity of implementation science study proposal in this survey results. Recommendation: the first two departments with large numbers of proposals approved be given two slots for sponsorship by the MEPI grant. Special efforts be put towards improving the proportion of studies on implementation science.

       1st Scientific International Conference

  • George Osanjo 1-3*, Eva Aluvaala5, Meshack Wadegu5, Wallace Bulimo4,5, Anastasia N. Guantai1,3, Faith A. Okalebo1,3, Margaret Oluka1,3, Francis Mulaa2,4. Carbohydrate – active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds - 2011

    Background Glycans and the enzymes that modify them – the carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes)- play key roles in biomolecular communication and in disease pathogenesis. Essential biological recognition information encoded by glycans includes the human ABO blood group determinants which mediate transfusion rejection reactions, promotion of neurogenesis, mediation of the inflammatory response and infection by viruses such as the Influenza A virus. Neuraminidases and alpha-L-fucosidases are Cazymes that catalyse the removal of terminal sialic acid and fucose residues from glycans respectively. Objectives We explored the structure/function relationships of Cazymes and their glycan ligands using the neuraminidase and alpha-L-fucosidase (TmFuc) from Influenza A virus and Thermotoga maritima respectively. Methodology The Influenza A H3N2 viral neuraminidase was obtained by generating cDNA using a reverse transcriptase, followed by polymerase chain reaction, gene cloning and expression in Escherichia coli XL1 blue cells. alpha-L-fucosidase (TmFuc) was cloned from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. Directed molecular evolution approach was used to engineer alpha-L-fucosidase (TmFuc) to improve its transglycosidase activity relative to hydrolytic function. Up to now enhancement of transglycosylation activities of natural glycosidases has been obtained by directed mutagenesis or by protein engineering of various exoglycosidases or endoglycosidases. Transferase activity of the Cazymeswere assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and capillary electrophoresis. Results Wild-type TmFuc catalysed oligosaccharide synthesis by transfer of a fucosyl residue from a pNP-fucoside donor to pNP-fucoside (self-condensation) with alpha-(1-3) regioselectivity or pNP-galactoside (transglycosylation) with alpha-(1-2) regioselectivity at low yields (7 %). Similar transglycosidase activity was not observed with the Influenza A virus neuraminidase. Following a cycle of mutagenesis and in vitro recombination of wild-type Tmfuc, it was shown that the best mutant exhibited a dramatic 32-fold increase in the transferase/hydrolytic kinetic ratio, while keeping 60 % of the overall wild type enzyme activity. Such synthetic improvements were obtained with only three mutations (T264A, Y267F, L322P) which were all located in the second amino-acid shell of the fucosidase active site. Discussion and Conclusion Molecular modeling suggested that some of these mutations (T264A, Y267F) of Tmfuc cause a reorientation of the amino-acids that are in direct contact with the substrates resulting in a better docking energy. Such mutants with high transglycosidase activity may constitute novel enzymatic tools for synthesis of fuco-oligosaccharides. While the Influenza A virus neuraminidase did not show trans-sialidase activity, the methodology developed could be used to evaluate susceptibility of Influenza A virus to neuraminidase inhibitors, the current first line medicines for management of influenza A virus infections.

       1st International Scientific Conference

  • Daniel M. Mbogo1*, George O. Osanjo2-4, Michael W. Okoth1 and Francis J. Mulaa5 Recovery of carotenoids from microorganisms using edible vegetable oils - 2011

    Background Carotenoids are key components of human nutrition and serve principally as as sources for vitamin A. Carotenoids are now thought to play specific roles in humans as free radical traps or antioxidants and may therefore be vital in the prevention of cancers, enhancing the immune response and prevent or delay the onset of degenerative diseases and aging. In view of the wide health importance of carotenoids, much attention has been given to production and extraction from natural sources. Objectives Paracoccus bogoriensis, a microorganism isolated from Lake Bogoria, has been shown to be a potential source of natural carotenoids. The aim of this study was therefore to recover carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin, from Paracoccus bogoriensis using edible vegetable oils. Methodology The following vegetable oils were assessed for their recovery rate of carotenoids: sunflower oil, soy oil, corn oil, peanut oil, olive oil and seseame oil. The carotenoid recovery rate was evaluated spectrophotometrically and by thin layer chromatography. Results, Conclusion and Recommendations Highest recovery yield was obtained with refined soy oil. The recovery yield was significantly influenced by cell lysis method (P<0.005) and vegetable oil (P<0.005). Optimum conditions for recovery of Paracoccus bogoriensis carotenoids in refined soy oil were determined to be heating temperature of 70° C and time of 10 hours. The results indicated the applicability of vegetable oils as bio-solvents for extraction of carotenoids from Paracoccus bogoriensis

       1st International Scientific Conference, 15-17 June, CHS, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Daniel M. Mbogo1*, George O. Osanjo2-4, Michael W. Okoth1 and Francis J. Mulaa5 Recovery of carotenoids from microorganisms using edible vegetable oils - 2011

    Background Carotenoids are key components of human nutrition and serve principally as as sources for vitamin A. Carotenoids are now thought to play specific roles in humans as free radical traps or antioxidants and may therefore be vital in the prevention of cancers, enhancing the immune response and prevent or delay the onset of degenerative diseases and aging. In view of the wide health importance of carotenoids, much attention has been given to production and extraction from natural sources. Objectives Paracoccus bogoriensis, a microorganism isolated from Lake Bogoria, has been shown to be a potential source of natural carotenoids. The aim of this study was therefore to recover carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin, from Paracoccus bogoriensis using edible vegetable oils. Methodology The following vegetable oils were assessed for their recovery rate of carotenoids: sunflower oil, soy oil, corn oil, peanut oil, olive oil and seseame oil. The carotenoid recovery rate was evaluated spectrophotometrically and by thin layer chromatography. Results, Conclusion and Recommendations Highest recovery yield was obtained with refined soy oil. The recovery yield was significantly influenced by cell lysis method (P<0.005) and vegetable oil (P<0.005). Optimum conditions for recovery of Paracoccus bogoriensis carotenoids in refined soy oil were determined to be heating temperature of 70° C and time of 10 hours. The results indicated the applicability of vegetable oils as bio-solvents for extraction of carotenoids from Paracoccus bogoriensis

       1st International Scientific Conference, 15-17 June, CHS, Nairobi, Kenya

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